It turns out that the theory of "God’s providence" deprives human behavior of objective validity.
He believed that man would become morally perfect and happy in this world, he regarded man not in terms of Christian love of neighbor, but as a humanist who glorified him, made him master of his destiny and water. The tendency between secular morality and religion ethics of the XVIII century. F. Prokopovich, S. Kalinovsky, M. Kozachinsky, S. Kulyabka. Professors of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, like other philosophers of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, tried to eliminate the contradiction between man’s free will and God’s providence. In their courses, they criticized the illusory freedom of will preached by Thomism, which argued that man’s good will depends on God, and that man himself is responsible for his actions, not God. How, then, can you be held accountable for your actions when your will does not exist without God’s support? It turns out that the theory of "God’s providence" deprives human behavior of objective validity. In the ethics courses of Kyiv scientists we are talking about a person, a person who. guided by her will and mind, she is able to do good deeds and consciously go to her goal. G. Konisky argues that "freedom of human action is nothing more than an arbitrary judgment of the will or the ability to choose from what concerns the goal." Teachers of the academy condemn the apathy and impartiality of the Stoics. Stoicism, they believe, is not worthy of a reasonable person, it kills all the best in it. Ethics at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy is based on rationalism. The professors of the academy are trying to bring it closer to real life. They consider the transformation of the world created by God to be man’s vocation. In the academy, the dominant trend in philosophy courses was deism: God recognized the act of creating the world, but after that God was deprived of the right to rule this world, because it had to be done by a person endowed with reason, consciousness and will. In the ethics courses of teachers of the academy there is a desire not just to comment on moral norms, but to make morality an effective force for improving society. At the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, children of all classes studied, from aristocrats, such as the Oginski princes, to the children of ordinary Cossacks and peasants. Still being a board, this educational institution had the branches – in 1632. in Vinnytsia in Podillia, and in 1639. in Gosha in Volyn. Among the pupils of the academy came many outstanding scientists, poets, playwrights and artists. Among the students of the academy were the children of almost all Cossack officers, although the academy had always been, as already mentioned, a general school, and the children of the hetmans sat next to the children of Cossacks, peasants, and burghers. Professors and graduates of the academy since the middle of the XVII century. are invited to Moscow, where they bring Western European education and culture (among them Epiphanius Slavynetsky, Artemy Satanovsky, Simeon Polotsky), as well as Ukrainian influence, which has spread to all aspects of life in Muscovy. Ukrainians founded a Slavic-Greek-Latin academy in Moscow, similar to the Kyiv one and its teachers, according to I. Ogienko, during the 18th century. recruited only from the Ukrainians themselves. Under the strong influence of South n literature since the middle of the XVII century. breakGreat Russian literature, the same is observed in painting and printing. Our compatriots, being in Moscow, quickly brought there a "new heresy" – began to preach in churches. In Ukraine it was a common thing, while in Moscow it was possible to read a sermon there only from a book. And since then our compatriots have bought "You start a new heresy, you teach people in the church, and we didn’t teach people in the church before, we taught them in secret … You have a devil in you and all the hypocrites "- he wrote about the spirit of Ukrainian free thought, The breakthrough of the dogma of Great Russian Orthodoxy, I. Ogienko. Interesting is the observation of Paul of Aleppo, who wrote that when "he was in Moscow, he had a castle hanging in his heart, his thoughts were pressed to the limit, because in Moscow no one feels free and cheerful, except for the people there. "When he returned to Ukrainian soil, his soul, like that of all his companions, was filled with joy and hearts widened" because the people in Ukraine "were friendly, kind and behaving. with us as with compatriots ". At that time c, when in Moscow Western science and culture have always been feared and fled from them, nothing like this has ever been observed in Ukraine, and" Western influence rolled freely down our river help me write an lab report for free. " the XVI century. (And in the 17th century it became commonplace), Ukrainians go to study abroad, and foreign citizens come to Ukraine.Feofan Prokopovych, Kasiyan Sakovych, Ignatiy Starushych, Innokenty Gizel, Tarasiy Zemka, Sylvester Kosov, Petro Mohyla and many others studied abroad among Kyiv professors.Ukrainians studied at the universities of Padua, London, Leiden, and Göttingen.Vienna, Paris and others.Western influence, according to researchers, has affected the entire social life of Ukraine: it is Magdeburg law, and shops, and architecture, painting, church affairs, education.Many people from Eastern Europe studied at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy: Serbs, Bulgarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Romanians.Many Russians studied at the academy, inclu ding Mikhail Lomonosov. In 1698 p. Tsar Peter ordered the patriarch: "We have priests, they don’t know how to read and write … and for that at least 10 people should be sent to schools in Kyiv to study." In 1736 p. 127 foreign students studied at the academy, 122 in 1737 and 47 in 1790. "The significance of the academy was immeasurable, because it aroused cultural and scientific impulses. It was like that in the 17th century, it remained the same in the 18th century , when it attracted all those who sought science, "I. Ogienko wrote about the academy. Even the limited and incomplete form of its own state, such as Ukraine in the 17th century, was enough for the Ukrainian people to develop the best traits of their temperament and achieve such a level of education and culture that boldly allows to place the Hetmanate next to the most educated and cultural countries of then Europe. Despite all the efforts of Peter the Great, and later his followers. The board never received an official high school title from the Polish government. The Polish government understood perfectly well the significance of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy for the Ukrainian people, who stubbornly waged a national liberation struggle. Polish politicians were aware that the academy could become "a hotbed of cultural schism and Russian secession" (O. Jablonowski), and therefore treated the academy unfriendly and tried in every way to prevent it. However, despite this, the academy gained more and more recognition in the Slavic world and became the center of cultural and national revival of Ukraine. Who gave the academy the name "academy" is still unknown, but it is not so important. Today it is more important to remember that Ukrainians already in the XVII, century. had their own high school, which gained recognition throughout the Slavic world, demonstrated the connection of Ukrainian culture with Western European, adopted the ideas of humanism, reformation and enlightenment, became a reflection of the democracy of Ukrainian society. It is important for us to remember this when returning to ourselves in a difficult way. References: Arkas M. "History of Ukraine-Russia"; Artyukh L. "Ukrainian Minuschina"; Bilchuk MM "Cultural life in Ukraine"; Orest Subtelny "History of Ukraine".
Genre originality of O. Vyshnya’s works
In the process of inspired work, a new genre created by Ostap Vyshnya was born and flourished – a smile. A smile is a kind of feuilleton and humor. This term was introduced by Ostap Vyshnya himself
He later wrote: “Although“ feuilleton ”has already won us the full right to life, in my opinion, the word“ smile ”is ours from“ feuilleton. ”The author of“ Cherry Smile ”masters and further develops the traditions of domestic and world satirical literature. First of all, the traditions of the classics (Gogol and Shevchenko, Shchedrin and Franko, Martovich and Chekhov). The secret of Ostap Vyshnya’s amazing popularity, as already mentioned, lies in his unity with his native people. destiny "" became "a writer and his work was determined, he consciously thought of one thing: Send me, fate, strength, skill, talent, whatever you want – just to do something so that my people in their titanic work, in his sorrows, sorrows, reflections, hesitations, – that the people smiled! That at least not on a full breast, and that at least one wrinkle of his working, pensive face, – that at least one wrinkle was smoothed! That eyes of my people when they are sometimes sad and grief-stricken, so that they may be at least like that ma piece of joy lit up. And when for all my work, for all the hard things I went through, I was lucky at least once, at least for a moment, to smooth out the wrinkles on the forehead of my people, to cheerfully sparkle their sad eyes – I do not need any more "fee". I am a servant of the people! And I’m proud of that, I’m happy of that! This is the most cherished credo of Vyshnya-artist, Vyshnya-citizen. It is no coincidence that Pavlo Mykhailovych emphas ized: "I will only say that he worked honestly!" And the people felt and appreciated it. He rewarded the sorcerer of laughter with sincere love. Because he, wrote Maksym Rylsky, is a purely folk writer, folk in the best and deepest sense of the word. Due to the peculiarities of the nature of his rare talent, Ostap Vyshnya subtly felt the comic, deeply understood its laws. He tirelessly sought new techniques and means of creating the comic. Vyshnya especially ruthlessly exposed the weakness of Ukrainians in the instinct of social and national unity, their anarchic pseudo-individualism, their inertia, all three features in the psychology and thinking of Ukrainians that took so long and cost Ukraine a severe test of dynamic change and modernization. Vyshnya satirically responds not only to laziness, but also to the processes of Little Russia, negligence in relation to the native language and culture, their dissolution in the union "trough". If the nobility – "the most characteristic feature of the Chukhrain." The satirist meticulously analyzed Ukrainianness, condemning the irreversible way of thinking, it was terribly painful for him for such inability to act, lack of initiative, passivity of our people.